Hendrik Lorentz was born on 18 July 1853 in the Arnhem region of the Netherlands and studied physics and mathematics at the University of Leiden. He was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Pieter Zeeman for the discovery and theoretical explanation of the Zeeman effect. Hendrik Lorentz also derived the transformation equations subsequently used by Albert Einstein to describe space and time. Hendrik Lorentz died in February 1928 in Haarlem, Netherlands.

The Zeeman effect an effect of splitting a spectral line into several components in the presence of a static magnetic field. The Zeeman effect is very important in electron spin resonance spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging and Mössbauer spectroscopy. It may also be utilized to improve accuracy in Atomic absorption spectroscopy. When the spectral lines are absorption lines, the effect is called inverse Zeeman effect. The Zeeman effect is named after the Dutch physicist Pieter Zeeman.

British physicist Sir Owen Willans Richardson described Hendrik Lorentz as a man of remarkable intellectual powers. “Although steeped in his own investigation of the moment, he always seemed to have in his immediate grasp its ramifications into every corner of the universe. The singular clearness of his writings provides a striking reflection of his wonderful powers in this respect”.